The consensus problem is a fundamental problem in distributed computing that is used to categorize the computational powers of shared objects. Given any set of input values $x_1, x_2, \ldots , x_n$ assigned to processes $p_1,p_2, \ldots ,p_n$, respectively, a consensus algorithm ensures that every process which takes sufficiently many steps decides a value satisfying:

Herlihy [1] defined the consensus number of an object, which is the largest number of processes for which consensus can be achieved using only instances of the object and registers. The consensus hierarchy classifies objects by their consensus numbers. Herlihy also proved that any object can be implemented by $n$-consensus objects and registers (and, hence, by every object with consensus number at least $n$) in a system with $n$ processes. However, the relative computational powers of objects with the same consensus number in systems with more processes is not entirely understood.

It has been shown [2, 3] that several well-known objects of consensus number 2 can be implemented from 2-consensus objects and registers in any system with finitely many processes. The Common2 Conjecture asserts that this is true for any object with consensus number 2. More generally, the Consensus Hierarchy Conjecture asserts that, for $n \geq 2$, every shared object of consensus number $n’ \leq n$ has an implementation from $n$-consensus objects and registers in every system with finitely many processes.

Rachman [4] constructed a family of nondeterministic objects that disprove this conjecture for all $n \geq 2$. Afek, Ellen, and Gafni [5] proved that the Consensus Hierarchy Conjecture does not even hold for deterministic objects. They introduced the $O_{m,k}$ object, for $m, k \geq 2$, and showed that each $O_{m,k}$ object has consensus number $m$, but cannot be implemented from $m$-consensus objects in any system with at least $km+k-1$ processes. More surprisingly, they showed that an $O_{m, k+1}$ object cannot be implemented from $O_{m,k}$ objects in any system with at least $mk+m+k$ processes. Thus, $O_{m,2}, O_{m,3}, \ldots $ is an infinite sequence of objects with increasing computational power, all with consensus number $m$.

The primary result of our work is that $O_{m,k}$ can be implemented among finitely many processes from $(m+1)$-consensus objects and registers. This implementation provides additional understanding of the consensus hierarchy for deterministic objects and is a step towards a characterization of their computational power. For our implementation, we introduce a new family of deterministic objects, $Q_r$, for $r \geq 0$.

The $Q_r$ object

The $Q_r$ object has two operations, competeand query, with the following sequential specifications:

$Q_0$ is equivalent to a test-and-set object and, thus, has consensus number 2. In general, the $Q_r$ object has consensus number $r+2$. The additional power of the $Q_r$ object for $r>0$ is due to its queryoperation, which allows $r$ other processes to learn the identity of the winner.

Theorem 2.1 There is an implementation of the $Q_r$ object from $(r+2)$-consensus objects and registers in every system with finitely many processes.

To implement a $Q_r$ object shared by $n$ processes, we use an array CONS [$1 \ldots n$] of $(r+2)$-consensus objects, a register gate which is initialized to $\bot$, and a fetch-and-increment object count.

A process $p_i$ performing competebegins by reading gate. If $\textit{gate} \neq \bot$, it returns false. Otherwise, $p_i$ writes $i$ to gate. This ensures that all processes that write to gate are concurrent. Process $p_i$ continues by entering a tournament: it proposes $i$ to CONS [$i$] through CONS[$n$] in order, returning false as soon as it is not the decision of one of these consensus objects. Otherwise, it returns true.

To perform query, a process $p_i$ first reads the value $i’$ of gate. If $i’ = \bot$, it returns $\bot$. Otherwise, it calls f&i on count and, if it has been accessed more than $r$ times, returns $\bot$. Otherwise, $p_i$ proposes $i’$ to CONS [$i’$]. Then it proposes the decision of CONS [$j-1$] to CONS [$j$] for $i’ < j \leq n$, in order. Finally, $p_i$ returns the decision of CONS [$n$], which is the id of the winner.

Implementing the $O_{m,k}$ object

The $O_{m,k}$ object, for $m, k \geq 2$, has a single operation, suggest, which takes a non-negative argument. Its sequential specification can be described by the string: \(S_{m,k} = A_1^mA_2^m \ldots A_k^mA_{k-1}A_{k-2} \ldots A_1\) Let $a_j$ denote the argument of the $(j-1)m + 1^{st}$ suggestoperation. If $A_g$ is the $j^{th}$ character in $S_{m,k}$, then, for $1 \leq j \leq km+k-1$, the $j^{th}$ suggest operation returns $a_g$, and we say it belongs to group $g$. If $j > km+k-1$, it returns $\bot$. The first $km$ suggest operations performed on the object are called prefix operations, and the next $k-1$ suggest operations are called suffix operations.

Therorem 3.1 There is an implementation of $O_{m,k}$ from $(m+1)$-consensus objects and registers in every system with finitely many processes.

To implement the $O_{m,k}$ object among $n$ processes, we use an array CONS [$1 \ldots k$] of $(m+1)$-consensus objects and an array position [$1 \ldots km$] of $Q_1$ objects (which, by Theorem [Qr], can be implemented from registers and 3-consensus objects and, thus, $(m+1)$-consensus objects). For $j \in {1,\ldots,km}$, there is an array $\textit{announce}_j[1 \ldots n]$ of registers that is used by processes to announce their values. When process $p_i$ performs suggest$(v)$, it performs competeon the first $Q_1$ object that it has not previously accessed and continues, in order, until it wins one. Prior to performing competeon position[$j$], $p_i$ announces $v$ in $\textit{announce}_j[i]$. If $p_i$ wins position[$j$], then it is performing a prefix operation belonging to group $\lceil \frac{j}{m} \rceil$, so it proposes $v$ to $\textit{CONS}[\lceil \frac{j}{m} \rceil]$ and returns the decision. If $p_i$ has accessed, but failed to win position[$km$], it calls f&i on a fetch-and-increment object count. Suppose count has been accessed $x$ times. If $x \geq k$, $p_i$ returns $\bot$. Otherwise, $p_i$ is performing a suffix operation belonging to group $k - x$. It performs queryon $\textit{position}[(k-x)m]$ to get the identity $i’$ of a prefix operation belonging to this group. It reads $\textit{announce}_j[i’]$, proposes this announced value to $\textit{CONS}[k-x]$, and returns the decision.


I would like to thank my supervisor Faith Ellen for her constant support and encouragement and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for funding this research.


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  2. Yehuda Afek, Eli Gafni, John Tromp, and Paul M. B. Vit ́anyi. Wait-free test-and-set (extended abstract). In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Distributed Algorithms (WDAG), pages 85–94, 1992.

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  4. Ophir Rachman. Anomalies in the wait-free hierarchy. In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Distributed Algorithms (WDAG), pages 156–163,1994

  5. Yehuda Afek, Faith Ellen, and Eli Gafni. Deterministic objects: Life beyondconsensus. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 97–106, 2016